The suitable planting time for summer sesame is from late May to early June. The suitable planting time of autumn sesame is the first ten days of July and the middle ten days of July.
Sesame is native to China. It is a warm temperate plant. Its planting is mainly distributed at 40 degrees north latitude to 40 degrees south latitude. Sesame planting areas in China can reach 45 degrees north latitude, mainly in the Yellow River and the provinces in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, as well as Henan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hebei and other provinces. Henan has the largest yield, accounting for about 30% of the country. According to statistics, the planting area of sesame in China is about 790 thousand hectares and the output is about more than 580 thousand tons.
(1) according to the branching habits of sesame, there are two main types in production:
A. Single rod type: usually not branched, shorter internodes, each node with 2-3 capsules, stem hard, generally late maturity, suitable for close planting;
B. Branching type: branching, long internodes, most of each node with a capsule, generally mature early, planting should not be too dense;
(2) according to the color of sesame, it can be divided into four categories:
A. white sesame: mainly used for pastry and other foods;
B. yellow and white sesame: mainly used for oil extraction and sesame paste.
C. Black Sesame: mainly used for pastry and medicinal;
D. variegated Sesame: mainly used for oil extraction;
(3) according to the number of edges of sesame capsule, it can be divided into four edges, six edges, eight edges and multi edges sesame.
(4) Sesame seeds can be divided into early maturity (80-90 days), middle maturity (90-100 days) and late maturity (100-120 days) according to the growth period.
Because sesame stems are erect and shaded area is small, sesame is often used to mix with dwarf crops. For example, mixed or intercropped with sweet potato, peanut, soybean and other crops. Generally, a row of sesame seeds or a row of sesame seeds between 2-4 rows of peanuts are Interplanted in 1-2 rows of sweet potatoes. Sesame is more drought tolerant, while beans are more tolerant to moisture. Sesame and beans are mixed to prevent drought and waterlogging.